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How Does Modafinil Support Your Mental Energy

Modafinil Australia is a unique drug that was approve in 1998 for narcolepsy. It has since show efficacy in other sleep disorders, and it is being investigate for a variety of other conditions including ADHD, nicotine addiction, depression, and bipolar disorder. Modafinil is an effective stimulant with a low potential for abuse. 

Increased Focus

Sold under the brand name Provigil, modafinil is widely use as a study drug or cognitive enhancer. It promotes wakefulness and has been use by people with narcoleptic sleep disorders to help them stay awake during the day. It has also been use by members of the armed forces to allow them to work for long periods without sleep.

However, the extent to which modafinil improves cognition has been inconsistent in studies. One study found that a single dose of modafinil improved performance on digit span and a sustained attention task. However, the authors of this study observed that their subjects had high IQs, and it is likely that general ceiling effects limit the ability of modafinil to improve these tasks for most people.

Several other studies have found that modafinil improves prefrontal-dependent cognitive functions in psychiatric patients. It has been show to increase digit span and letter-number span in medication-free adults with narcolepsy, and it has been show to decrease Stroop interference in depressed individuals (decreased error rate on the Wisconsin Card Sort Test). Moreover, the selective histamine receptor agonist modafinil was found to improve cognitive function in schizophrenic patients who were receiving antipsychotic medications.

Moreover, it was found to reduce depressive symptoms in adolescent depression by enhancing prefrontal activation and reducing the effect of their current antidepressants. It has been show to improve response inhibition in children and adolescents with ADHD, as well as parent, teacher, and clinician ratings of ADHD symptoms in a 4-week open-label study with flexible dosing of 100-400 mg/day.

Increased Memory

Many people who use Modafinil to stay awake during long shifts at work say that it helps them remember things and complete complicated tasks. It’s not entirely clear how it works to do this, but like other stimulants, it stops nerve cells from reabsorbing dopamine (an excitatory chemical) after it has been release into synapses. It also seems to inhibit the reuptake of other chemicals that affect cognition, such as glutamate and GABA. More Visit…

Several studies have found that modafinil improves performance on various measures of memory and attention in healthy subjects who are not sleep-deprive. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose study of 20 schizophrenia patients, modafinil significantly enhanced performance on digit span forwards and backward and a version of the Tower of London and on a delayed visual recognition memory task.

Modafinil also reduce errors on the interdimensional/extradimensional shift (ID/ED) task, which is a measure of attentional set-shifting and is know to depend on ascending DA systems (Dias et al, 1996).

Several studies using fMRI have suggest that modafinil’s effects on working memory are associate with activation of frontal cortices, especially the anterior cingulate. In addition, some research has found that modafinil increases extracellular levels of serotonin in the brain.

This is consistent with the vigilance-promoting actions of the drug, but it also suggests that serotonin may enhance memory. Modafinil augments the increase in extracellular serotonin induced by the antidepressant medications fluoxetine and imipramine in the awake rat. Synapse 55: 230-241.

Increased Energy

Modafinil is a wake-promoting agent originally developed to treat sleepiness in narcolepsy and shift work sleep disorder. It is also use off-label as a cognitive enhancer in people who are not sleep-deprive and has been show to improve performance on some cognitive tasks (Michael et al, 2003; Brem et al, 2005).

Its effect on cognition appears to be independent of its effects on sleep disorders. Unlike most psychostimulants, modafinil does not increase heart rate or blood pressure and does not appear to cause euphoria or feelings of jitteriness (Saletu et al, 2007).

The neurochemical mechanisms by which modafinil improves cognitive functioning are still unclear. However, some evidence suggests that it interacts with central monoamine systems, modulating dopamine and glutamate neurotransmitter release.

It increases the activity of dopamine receptors, and in a non-clinical study, increases the synthesis of dopamine (Dickson et al, 1999). It also affects glutamate metabolism by enhancing both reuptake and synthesis (Pierard et al, 1995).

Recently, Ruairidh Battleday and Anna-Katharine Brem from Oxford University and Harvard Medical School reviewed all studies on cognitive enhancement with modafinil published from 1990 to 2014. They found 24 papers that reported improvements in a variety of cognitive functions, including planning and decision-making, flexibility, learning and memory, and creativity.

The most consistent benefits were seen in the longer and more complex tasks that were teste. These cognitive benefits were correlate with changes in brain alpha 1B-adrenoceptors, particularly in the frontal and anterior cingulate cortices.

Reduced Stress

Modafinil appears to reduce the accumulation of adenosine, a sleep-inducing compound, in the brain by inhibiting its reabsorption. Adenosine is a natural by-product of cell metabolism that accumulates during wakefulness and leads to sleepiness. By reducing the formation of free radicals, Modafinil may lower adenosine levels and promote wakefulness.

Another possible mechanism is that modafinil increases monoamine availability. Modafinil binds with moderate affinity to the dopamine transporter, increasing the availability of dopamine in the brain. Dopamine has been link to cognitive performance, especially in the prefrontal cortex.

Several studies have found that modafinil improves performance on tasks that require cognitive control, such as the WCST and the Hayling sentence completion task. fMRI studies of arousal have also found that modafinil increases activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, which are associate with behavioral arousal.

Some studies suggest that modafinil improves cognitive function by enhancing the amplitude of low-frequency oscillations in the brain, which have been link to vigilance. These effects appear to be mediated by dopamine and the brain’s alpha 1B adrenoceptors.

Dr Ruairidh Battleday and Dr Anna-Katharine Brem, two researchers from the University of Oxford, reviewed all available research on cognitive enhancement with modafinil. They found 24 studies that reported improvements in various cognitive domains, including planning and decision-making, flexibility, learning and memory, and creativity. However, the impact of modafinil on these cognitive domains varied depending on the task tested. Read More Blog…

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